Chứt ethnic31-08-2016 - 21:44 - 570 lượt xem
Residence scattered in the valley of the districts of Minh Hoa and Tuyen Hoa, Quang Trach, Bo Trach, Quang Binh Province, Huong Son, Ha Tinh province, Chut ethnic groups have called Books, You, RUC, Ma Lieng and Arem. Chut ethnic approximately 5079 people who live intermingled with Vietnam and Brunei (Khua, Tri Mang Coong). Vietnamese Dictionary Chut language belongs - Muong. Chut not have their own writing.
In these groups, who are you and who outnumber Books. Book group to own two small groups are considered Books Mai and Books. Books are the Books of Mai Mai (Hoa Son commune); Books Books are considered at the border (border), only people in Gia Oc original Book (of Thuong Hoa). Between the two groups there is less disparity in the level of economic development and culture. But they were mixed together long settled.
Chut (Book, RUC, Arem) in the ancient capital of Quang Trach, Bo Trach and Huong Son. But because of wars and heavy taxes, so 3-4 lifetime ago, they had to run to take refuge in the mountains to the west.
The proven resources on the homeland of the Book, RUC, Arem not they are living in a region, which is the Vietnamese in the residence of two and Quang Trach, Bo Trach district.
Apart from the above mentioned names, the people of groups calling themselves Chut. According Chut ethnic language means compacting stone, limestone.
Chut live on agriculture nomadic farming and hunting and gathering. In the group of grinding, only people living on agriculture specialist. You're also in people, Ma Lieng, prioritized, especially the RUC and Arem, hunting and gathering is subsisting in the time of crop failure.
Cultivation was carried out in two seasons, rainy and dry seasons.
During the dry season, they grow maize, cassava, beans and tobacco. The burning, planting and sowing seeds was conducted from December through to January the following year before. Corn, tobacco, beans harvested cassava in May also in August.
After the rainy season, it was just rice and corn. The slash and sowing seeds lasted from April to May. August to harvest corn, the harvest in October.
Depending on the soil and planted seeds that time shifting cultivation plots with different soil types cassava can be used for four years, and the kind of corn can only be used within two years.
Labor tools ax or machete only to detect cane cultivation and sowing seeds to dig holes. Until sedentary, with the assistance of the local government, the people and cattle were used to slash and plow the fields.
Chut only major hunting small animals such as monkeys are plowed, foxes, porcupines ... especially the monkeys. The hunting and trapping of large animals mainly to protect crops; however, it is also a food source.
Tools mainly hunting and crossbows only name (including your name and the name usually poison). When the collective hunt, they used dogs to lure animals. Trap is a method of hunting are very potent and important. For large animal snare traps which they, trapping round. Small trapping traps tren (a clamp traps), pile headline (a slope of traps), inventory (used to trap porcupines, birds, rats ...)
Source gatherers mainly starchy crops such as crawling (some places called ascites, a plant belonging to the family of coconut) and promiscuous, potatoes wool, sometimes people also dig the tubers for food grinding ... Fish, snails, mussels forest and vegetables are the main food source of the cells. Gatherer tools are simple, people used an ax, a machete to chop crawling, using sharp rolled blunt installed, sometimes pointed to dig trees. To catch fish, usually people use fishing rods, fishing rods traps (a kind of trap in which the rod is to enable). When the fish bites the bait that traps pop up), poisonous leaves drop, exhausted, fishing recently.
In all the aforementioned manufacturing jobs: agriculture, man-and-burn cultivation. When the county investigation, men go ahead to dig holes with sticks, beads and women go after landfill investigation. Harvesting is the main work of women. Hunting is the main work of the men, the 12-year-old little brother began hunting with adults. Gatherer only by women and children in charge.
These cultivation, hunting, gathering and fishing are carried out on each individual and family. However, collective labor traditions still exist: such as agricultural labor in maintaining it as helping form and the change (inserting sure). In these two forms, as doicong is the most common type. See also helped in the better off, because although not remunerated, but the owner must do to help invite eating. In hunting, sometimes people organize collective hunting.
Due to the nomadic life to the people should be in simple huts or makeshift in caves, stone roof. Until the sedentary, the new You gradually from Khua house style, the books, the new Ma Lieng's Vietnamese-style houses in the area. Arem own compatriots until RUC and before peace is repeated (1954) still reside under the original method mentioned above. Today, the people were in the valley with solid houses and spacious.
Chut unknown woven cotton fabric. Want to apparel fabrics, they have to buy or trade with Vietnam and Laos in the contiguous zone. The exchange primarily for the tools indispensable as ax, machete, or a particular essential ... So copper pot of ethnic clothes very simple: in summer, men in loincloths, shirtless women wear skirts only. When winter came, they get dried and Arabic bark sewn into clothing (called Pong Kche a number) when I lived sedentary, new people have enough clothes to wear. Currently, people with who are you dressed like Khua, and the Book, RUC, Ma Lieng, Arem still dressed like the Vietnamese.
Previously, though scattered and wandering life, but among families still have links with certain nhautrong unit called caven.
Caven means village. Each caven has a living area and a certain business. Land and public forests in areas under their caven exploitation and use of caven it. Who wants to select land for cultivation anywhere just plug trees to let others know that land has the users. This caven people want to do business in other caven must have the consent of that caven. In a caven many different clans. The people in the same line at the same caven.Cung they often have when they live in different caven.
PU head caven is caven (caven father). Assisting him with the elderly in caven (called Mr. K Mac)., PU cavencung village elders to discuss and solve the task of caven as: amount of devotion, to celebrate harvest, settle feuds , to consider and decide on the outside would like to make a living on the land of his caven (these people act violations, PU caven must be responsible before caven). PU caven longer employed in the ritual ceremony of caven. To only part of this religious function of the PU caven, people still call him a howler Care (custodians mountains). PU caven is the age, business experience, prestige, understand the customs of ... In addition to the work caven to shoulder for caven, PU caven still have to work to earn a living as the other members. However, sometimes he also give him some little produce.
Caven collective activities may be conducted only in the farm holidays, and rituals, magic hunting only done by individuals, depending on the time of each export without collective organization as agricultural rituals.
In Chut no family mode, where only the patriarchal family cottage. The small family (monogamous) are living separately. Those who have built families living with her parents. While married sons often alone. Daughter married her husband to come home, son-in-law less inhabited. Between families in the same family and the families of those who have no common blood anhem economic crash and no collective bargaining, because the work shifting cultivation and hunting, gathering all fish card. Ancestry (plooc trying pugia) were worshiped in the patriarch. When the patriarch died, the cult was transferred to his brother's successor. Only when no one generation on, the new cult for a generation communication below.
In Chut, animist beliefs are common: forest haunted forest people, ma streams (muych its industriousness), in mid-air with spiritual tickle l muych scum (ghost hovering in mid-air), in the four directions and between Mr. sun has 5 brothels public (public thoughtfully ancestor: the land owner is considered caven) .In the brothel house, (hal tpua his cell, pua pà PEP: two king, cook) ... Than custodians and maintenance protect forest land, the people and things went muych caven called medical fields. It is also the highest gods in their divine system.
The Party and State have specific policies to preserve ethnic and cultural features of ethnic Chut remaining. The settlement policy, specific settlements and priorities helped her place of residence to be stable, develop community integration of ethnic groups.