Ethnic H'rê20-09-2016 - 22:11 - 336 lượt xem
There are about 142 889 ethnic H're residents in mountainous western province of Quang Ngai, Binh Dinh. H're voice of Mon - Khmer. In the past, people called by the name H're: All multiwalled, Man Thach Bich, All Son Phong Ta Ma, Commercial Ba, All Luy, Chom, Andrew Care, Care Quang Ngai, All Cham. It is the self-proclaimed ethnic identity by locations or by name of source streams where they reside as Drag river, river K Andrew, Roa River, River Union. From these names by locations scattered gradually by ethnic self-consciousness, the people voluntarily called H're. H're become an ethnic community on the basis of uniform undergoing ethnic cohesion.
H're considered the western region of Binh Dinh, Quang Ngai and connecting adjacent Highland ancestors where they cleared permanent inhabitants. Legend of ethnic origin associated with the integration H're mountain mum, Rin local mountains. Since it can be considered H're are natives,
Due to the close relationship H're voice should have used the same words to the English capital of Ba Na, Xo Dang, Gie Triêng in North Highlands. Mid-twentieth century, the word was born H're based on the Latin alphabet used velvet scope narrowed.
H're make a living mainly paddy and shifting cultivation, hunting, gathering, fishing, weaving, forging, as the extra jobs, but have significant meaning. The common pet in the family's buffalo, dogs, pigs, chickens, goats
Level shifting cultivation of wet rice fields H're have high development level. Fellow citizens by taking advantage of local valleys, streambeds and selected land plants as the main crop paddy. H're brackish to use terrain broken rice. From the terraces on slopes to the valley boggy fields, shallow lagoon can be renovated to rice cultivation. Fellow construction of small irrigation schemes on rivers such as: Be coast, damming, digging ditches, water treadmill vehicles, farm equipment used mature animal traction plowing. Crop rotation of two crops a year compatriots: dreams and season, crop production is considered major.
Cultivation season lasts only one season from March to September lunar calendar. She used the machete ax discovered fields to dry grass and crop burning fire exit. Upland field exit holes poked particles, fields considered high by preventing birds hut out weeding the fields and wait to collect either. In particular, the upcoming autumn upland rice farmers often use the rock musical, pristine bamboo fountain with loud to scare duoichim create interesting.
Gatherer, hunting is economically active women associated with family living habits of the inhabitants of the mountains. Women often take care of the gatherers in the forest, fish crabs shrimp dabbling contact the stream. Men are responsible for hunting, trapping and fishing birds with nets, sign it.
H're settled into villages (p transmission) in the floor and the ground floor, there is the old village head village chief. Traditional village called H're compatriots by landmark hills, rivers natural habitat. Village built in areas where drinking water sources and production associated with the cultivation area. Non-nomadic ethnic, except special cases such as natural disasters, new diseases leave the village. Houses in the village are arranged in layers from low to high, usually chilli imports up across the mountain slope overlooking the rice fields the country. .Each Village usually has 40-50 rooftops. Formerly farmers fence-style village defense against predators and bad guys invade, now only separated from each house announced earlier that no permanent fence as before.
H're stilts above the ground floor there are over 1m to open crawlspace. The home has two rows of columns, choose good wood structured as columns. Each row of the long-running soap is transparent roof timbers, hitchhiking pillars guarding sure but thoroughly dry shave. Seconds forced the animals connect the parts of the roof, the walls, the floor.
H're custom horizontal sleep first floor facing the surface lowland, upland foot slope toward the mountain. First left the house where he slept and family living; Last house on the right side whereabouts of women and children. House has two stairs in front and behind. In the house there are two main kitchen stove and kitchen accessories.
Operating H're traditional village include the village head, the mediator, who worship. The head of the village elders usually experienced, outstanding economic community be trusted. The mediator said promoting its role in relation to arbitrate, according to ethical conflicts, customary law recognized by the community. Religious activists have knowledge of the spiritual world, of the sacrifices of all the family and the community executive to invite the village rituals. But this does not promote production and work behavior in the village when the need arises, in addition they are members of the family.
Similar to a number of ethnic groups, who do not have their previous H're, called buffer. Today, the people themselves brought the clans Dinh, Pham, Nguyen ...
Men usually wear loincloth H're (kapen), wearing a black shirt, long sleeves, buttoned at the front, not the waist tunic trimmed with red cloth decorated with red. They often use two cloths covered head scarf several rounds black pants, a white towel to wrap round, two heads and shoulders above the towel set, when away from their scattered red scarf.
Women wear skirts H're (tomato cultivation) sewn into a tube, the average length of 1.2 m, approximately between the narrower, upper and lower segments of the segment with decent skirt. 5.6 inches wide, decorated with colored thread at 2 head dress, to wear skirts looked like two floors, the bottom calf government. Traditional Austrian woman's 5 body, indigo dyed dark, long and narrow sleeves, tuck shirt bears the right buttons, spine and edges shore are just white shirt, red, wear overalls covered in the chest.
Women like to coordinate H're 2 black indigo and white, it has expressed interest omen beauty director, repressed, hidden. Usually bronze ornaments, silver, aluminum and beads, men wear necklaces, bracelets, ear rings women wear more.
In the past, people may continue into adulthood H're cut 6 teeth of the upper jaw, this procedure is now abolished.
Weddings continue monogamy principle has been established. Under the old regime, a handful of elites have two or three wives, some people take a second wife so rare children. . Mores allow widow took her husband's brother, husband, sister and wife can get in marriage also has matchmaking. Marriage H're not anonymous trading. The phenomenon of marrying another popular race yet. Depending on your family situation each party, can go home bridegroom or the bride can wife to the husband. When the couple first child is separated from his parents as private housing into independent economic units.
H're depending wedding party to welcome the wife (as a bride or groom), the larger ceremonies. They open savory treats with wine, singing happily. Family prepared a dedicated kitchen as a place to sleep for the newly married couple, where the ritual took place stick symbolizes the couple: two men exchanged betel, wine bowl, toss them a ring just .. School where the bride, the groom for a girl to pick up on, the girl for a girl to go off. The bride to the husband through the door, "bring" (the door with indoor husband). Capita farewell night stay asleep next to the bride (or groom), the next morning the couple returned home spouse's parents, and then they return to the place of residence was predetermined.
H're superhuman force that includes many types of spirits bearing different names but in the belief that the same soul rituals rice during rice production occupies a significant position, focus on two periods of rice per season, while sowing and harvesting to warehouse storage. Every year, with farming, they perform rituals to keep the rice, the mountain, the river god, rain god, the god of trees, rock god bless, praying for good weather, lush vegetation, harvests ... organic animals born, the people of peace.
So far in the consciousness of ethnic H're, praying for rain festival is considered the human activity associated with the great man, is the interference of the human spirit and the divine. When met at the soil drought, the trees, the thirsty rice farming may not be the most cultivated, the ethnic H're specialized wet rice cultivation, they organized "praying for rain festival," they to ask for help to the gods bless, they believe that god will help them with irrigation water droplets cool green forests, the fields to add green trees, fields with water makes plants flourish results and be a bumper crop.
Festivals are not praying for rain in a certain cycle that will be held from 2 to 3 years, depending on economic conditions - social community. This is the nature festivals create community cohesion, everyone has the voluntary contributions and assigned the implementation of the village, and the owner of cult (worship owners), it has spiritual meaning, is both spiritual and cultural significance of community feeling in the community. It is one of the most important rituals in the process of agricultural production, is performed before transplanting paddy crop, usually in May, the 6th lunar month.
H're compatriots have traditionally kept fighting ancient water village. From the date of the Party and Government to go with her children a revolutionary, active participation in the struggle against foreign invaders, building and protecting the country. Fellow has completed the sedentary and the poor is gradually removed doigiam life stabilization and socio-economic development in the renovation period. The preservation and promotion of traditional culture are tied with fellow implement the mobilization of the people to build cultural life.