Thnic Ê Đê13-09-2016 - 14:49 - 644 lượt xem
Pa Ve Su
Ede ethnic living in the Central Highlands. Ede had known as Anak Ede, Anak Eade, Pade or fairly easy, Egar, Dyke. Local groups include KPA, Adbam, Krung, Mdhna, Ktul, Delie, Hrue, Bih, Plo, Kah, Kdrao, Kay Close, Close Mak, Ening, Arul, Hwing, Ktie, Epan. The voice of the Ede language Malay group - majority island.
367 890 Ede ethnic people there, residing mainly in Dak Lak, Gia Lai, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa.
Ede mainly shifting cultivation on the flat land in a way flap rotational technique used hoes to till the soil before sowing seeds herbicides. Ede area of land cultivated residence usually distributed worm humus so much arable fallow dozens of New Year and see the world burn. When playing fields, The Ede can not keep cutting the big trees usually have beehives and tree brach hoach (oil alatus), retaining trees (stars) for making coffin, trees for shade Ko nia. The customary laws also ban cultivation Ede slash wildfires burning village, which is considered a felony, punishable by lifelong slavery.
Ede has set quandao upland ditches around a thatched grass roots spread detranh on earth suction damage the soil and prevent the animals destroy crops in upland. Production tools include axes, rub antlers, (w separate antenna b, w antenna wit), sticks to dig holes, investigate canister paddy seeds, rice basket during its closure. The ax is the universal tool - cutting down trees, buildings, are home appliances, outline tomb statue.
Agricultural products have 3 months paddy, paddy 4-5 months, all plastic rice white rice; glutinous rice include: black rice, red rice, white rice are delicious: with millet, sweet potato, cassava, pumpkins, melons, peppers, tobacco, cotton, ...
The family livestock in Ede was noticed development: chickens, ducks, geese, pigs, dogs, cattle; the wealthy few remaining elephant. Pets to being exchanged for gongs, jars, textiles and slaughtered in funerals, weddings, worship.
Craftsmanship is still anonymous family sideline. Basketry Rattan help families be self-sufficient grain corn containers, toys made of rice, with tools such as bear, which to contact individuals. Forging can be a machete, ax, blade rub antlers, hoe blade types, darts for hunting. Craft spinning and weaving style Indonesia self-sufficient enough for the family to wear. Some of the land where the cook profession, as Europe pantry. Previously the handicrafts manner exchanged goods, today, the popularity of sale industry.
Ede remain large matriarchal family consists of many small family residence matriarchal together in a house on stilts. In the large family was matriarchal, hostess (science to) operating activities. She is the only person who has the right to take the rice granary of users, who bear farming rice for family members. Inheritance rights belong to the children, the children that are born the mother's name. The man in the family is the main labor force and foreign missions. Today, the small family gradually quyendang popular form, according to her son explained it is because not enough contain large pot. The small family matriarchal can still reside in a house on stilts, but every family living individual activities, great hostess at this time only serves as guidance descendants do business and help each other .
The village of Ede is the merchant, merchant leader called the "first water station" (po battery cases). Called "first water station" but in fact, apart from looking after the water landing, he was manager of the wholesale operation of all the fish present in the civil, military, security, theocratic, and external relations. Assisting the military for cases with K'eng po battery, the court of Po Pbat KDI, the ritual sacrifices have Riu Po Yang and shaman (mjao). At the time of the French, the village office manager called Science trafficking (as vice point in Kinh).
Ede people eat rice cooked in huge copper pot (big family) or cooked in small copper pot or pot (small family). Sticky rice to eat only when the ritual way mixed grills cook-off or parking. Regular food is chilli salt, bushmeat hunting, fish catch is used in baked way, warehouses with bamboo shoot soup. Drink mainly wine connoisseurs incubation jars. Both men and women are addicted to betel together.
Traditional Costumes Women's long wrap skirt Ede is to heel. Wrap skirt fabric width horizontally to the waistband and hem (ie each edge fabric) with the white lines only red weave pattern on the cloth with indigo skirt den.Vay good (Myong dech) wearing dress festive and often ( Bubble) wear to work. Today, popular or tube dress with flower print fabric. Above wear short pullovers, sleeveless or with short-term, there are many colored lines pattern in the shoulder, arm, wrist, bear coat.
Men only loincloths woven pattern and fringed edges colored long sides at both ends, the Treasury released a long head in front, side on wearing pullovers, buttock flap cover. Men's shirt as the leader in the chest is also decorated with embroidered piece "eagle", embroidered underarm and learn both sides of the garment, with a beaded rear.
Speaking of his crease at Ede is said to house hundreds of meters long floor. Previously, the wooden bamboo thatched roof, this is made entirely of wood and corrugated iron roof. Calculate the length of the house is counted to the number of horizontal beams (dykes) associated with a pair of columns, the number of how many dykes then receded a time. Houses are usually located along the east-west direction, so that when people lie along the first ever well towards East - the direction of the sunrise, the proliferation of all development. The house has a staircase: a staircase head east for the best man, the west staircase for women; the first two floors are pitch.
Ede mainly transported by carrying the basket on his back, two straps on the shoulder jacket bearer. in the Krong Buk, common people make baskets Ede high leg just keeps spreading out the four corners has supported balancing baskets weighed beginning bearer. Ede also transported by elephants but not common.
Previously, he remains popular Ede marriage "race" (chue NUE) you husband or wife's brother. Fellow handed the sentence: "rui to replace broken ones, to replace a broken one seconds, the dead husband or wife must be connected". Husband died, the widow has the right to require a husband's younger brother alternative, likewise, his wife died, the man has the right to require girls wife instead. In this case, the E De customary law rules: older people have to wait for your spouse to adulthood. Today, The Ede excluding the specified age minimum conditions that lead to marriage: son must know farming, nia knit, woven baskets. Daughter to cook, weave fabrics, woven clothes and said homemaker, and comply with the law of marriage and family.
Matriarchy should govern marriage, the girl actively seeking husbands. The girl loved a son that is told through matchmaking parents to ask the husband.
While the old people died, mourning all bad news knocked gong, villagers flocked to help the burial. Funerals have lasted two or three days in the forest waiting for reclining wooden coffin carved work. The body was in the coffin placed shrouding his head pointing east. Corpses taken from their homes under the west door, legs go ahead with the deaths step foot on the world of ghosts. Barrows was up long, high, wide, around the tomb placed many dishes, jars, jars, baskets, dresses, archives, chipping or jacket was torn ... The notion that the division of the living for the dead so that they continue "life" in the afterlife.
Funeral inherited by daughter presides. The following spring, people mourn the graves, grave-leaving ceremony, which quit the grave no longer care to. Ede previously also buried many people continue to die in the same family to the tomb, this is the individual graves buried under new lifestyle.
Ede had abstained continuously: when the first rain season, they took it all out of the display farm equipment on the field rainwater floor for good luck; The first day they abstain from having to go farming deer, sense, the compensation though, tickling roller (monkey, ape) ...
About divine, people's perceptions of soil and water by the gods and god Ae Ae Die Du created. And on the ground, then rolled care god Po land, god ca Po battery is the source of water.
Ede has 5 key rules, which are: 1. A monogamous; 2. Do not leave each other; 3. Process wiring; 4. Assuming village dedicated to the villagers; 5. People should listen to all villages and landowners. Five rules on spirit symbolized by Smuth tree. Whoever disobeyed two laws deemed to have cut off the roots, not according to the law 2 3 and 4 are cut off branches.
Ede has a treasure of myths extremely rich, are divided into: the god of gods in the heavens and the earth. On the heavens with gods and gods Ae Ae Die Du was envisioned as the huge man, with limbs as thick as trees, have been struck down breathing humans and wild animals, as the god of rain, wind, thunder lighting.
Agricultural deities is considered good faith. And the evil spirit is the spirit Yang Lie specializes caused the storm spilled, broken trees, rice down. Statue of god wooden sword usually show up first appointment. Shen Yang Hbieng wind, rain god god help AE Yua Yang Lie cause rain, storms, flooding harm humans, especially to children.
Ede also has a treasure trove of rich fairytale called Klei descendant. Including the content and the mountain area of rivers, lakes, streams, woods, keep the saw teeth, ear strings ... to the fable tells of small animals such as rabbits gentle, turtles ... to lash these habits vices through laughter surprise. Fairy tales also mentioned the anonymous aspect shifts customary laws and practices shift, referring to the right to possess the land, family property, family relations, regulation of marriage, in which the proceedings ... protection emerged as customary, community.
Cultural activities associated with myths and fairy called after Khan (epic) with the aim of praising the cultural hero was in the fight against natural disasters, theocratic and promote the rights and aspirations expressed themselves because, truth and goodness reach aesthetic. Khan epic also describes the flow of love and living practices villages, homes, clothing, ritual ....
The traditional instruments of Ede is also very rich. Typical is the gong (knah) and gong (ching). 6 gong to fall into several units, from large to small, including: knah Lhiang (also called amalhiang), MDU Khok (also called Klah Khok), Hlue Khuk (also known as forward), Hlue lhiang, Hlue Khok Removal (also known as khiek). Gong with knob, 3 pcs, led by ana, the second is the MDU, ultimately desire.
Unique instrument is commonly referred to as bamboo tube ding, ding b NOT tut as 6 different lengths architecture into a set. Ede also above meters above kok like forests, but are a little big horn or hardwood tie bar link type up a review of music, hard. Dan b checkered like a subtle but fingers strumming. Men stand suspension kni like cork monochord but stopped pulling strings.
His visual art is also very diverse Ede, expressed in rich patterns on fabric, on knitwear such as intestinal architecture, birds spread wings, scorpion brood, eggs, lizards, bees clinging bough , eagle eggs, flowers, corn, melon seeds, should drink, fruit mtak (wood screw results in the remote park spinning shell), the only, the arrow tail, strap gong, tomb columns, the moon ... the motifs on knitwear shown here, on the road often graphic fabric. The colors that favorite Ede also plentiful, including red, white, moss green cau ... The carvings on wood, such as staircase column, column tomb, god columns, pillars, statues, tomb also extremely rich in symbolism, such as the breast milk double, coronary moon, ivory, the varan, hawks birds, gourds, the hats, rice mortars, elephants, monkeys ... .On the god column banana shape, the shape kning boat, the roof on the boat called the rice (to esci) the wood carvings though rudimentary sketches but quite stable, sophisticated, lively, realistic depiction freely However, leaving the viewer the impression deeply.
In the history of building and defending the country in the Central Highlands, ethnic Ede plays an important role and positive. Many villages became revolutionary bases, resistance, power supply capacity of the Highlands who contributed to the victory Spring 1975. Compatriot also contributed to the southwest border war, combat robots and injection the enemy forces against our country.
Today, the way of the Party and Uncle Ho, the lives of ethnic Ede has changed according to trends and innovation social progress. Many industrial areas and industrial plant formed fins bring high economic value. Socio-economic development but cultural preservation and promotion of traditional values are respected people.